Final Papo Lecture
Musical Traditions of Ladino Speaking Jews
Gerush Sefarad (leaving Sefarad)....linguistically misleading. Seems like it should be MI-Sfarad.
Rabbis explained this by saying that they "needed to get the Spain taken out of them." Jews were very integrated in Spanish life and culture. They adopted/adapted ballada, romanza and copla. Romanzas were associated with women, coplas with men.
"Blessed be the one who ordered his world in such a way that the man are in his shop and the children are in school."
Ladies didn't need to pray in Hebrew. They wrote their Ladino in Latin script. Ladino as if it were French or Serbo-Croatian or Turkish. But men wrote in Hebrew letters.
Book of poetry and song La Mujera Sephardi. Chapters: Childhood. Marriage. MotherInLaws. Widowhood. Why? Typically the women married early (to bear children) and men married late (after being established).
Romanzas were exposed to them because the women sang them to the children. But society taught the boys and men to ignore and forget because they were mama's songs for children.
Coplas had too much Hebrew for women to follow.
Sephardic community tends to be more unified than Ashkenazim. Traditional and less traditional. To them, Orthodox is a term about a church. Conservative and Reform not pertinent terms. A la Turka vs. a la Franca.
My endowed lover.
The queen is looking through the window and preparing her hair. The king comes and touches his member to her butt.
"My lover I have 4 sons, 2 by the king and 2 by the lover. I've sent the King's 2 to war but "yours" are safe here with me.
How do you like the dream I had?
The king isn't sure about this and kills the lover to play it safe. (Queen hadn't realized that she was singing to the king, not her lover.) Understandable that the rabbis weren't too keen on this literature...but after expulsion, it was different, and the rabbis became the collectors and disseminators.
17th century Salonika law question....I was eating a worm in a nonwormy (no expectation that it could be wormy) fruit. I told the Beit din in Salonika and they said don't worry it wouldn't happen. In the Ashk community, there would be overreaction and banning. In Seph world you have erred by checking and making trouble. Making fun of the rabbis, going away from the community, saying that previously communities weren't sufficiently religious enough.
Coplas: anonymous or by famous rabbis. First Jewish musical: 17th century Istanbul: Coplas of Joseph the Just by Toledo
Wives' names are typically Spanishization of tribal name
Yissachar: Merchant=Money brings Kavod:Kvudah
Hazzanim should see to the re-creation of this musical.
There are musical notes and instructions.
Finally about tachrichim (burial shroud)....Today we are in denial about death. Sephardic tendency: when someone goes to a next part of life, they would gather together, sing songs, he would lie on the ground and they would take his measure. Step by step by step. Acknowledging that death is a stage of life.
Final Berk Lecture
After the Spanish Civil War
As a Fascist he comes close to Mussolini and Hitler in 1940. Hitler wants a pass through Spain and wants Gibraltar and North Africa. Franco wants those places. Neither yields to the other.
Hitler's 2 biggest mistakes: going to war in Russia and not taking Gibraltar.
Hitler wants Spain in on Barbarossa but Franco just sends some troops.
Franco was a visceral anti-Semite throughout the 30s, but he had a fluctuating policy. Sometimes he lets them pass. But if they miss their ship, they may end up in Spanish concentration camps, or worse France and Germany.
Walter Benjamin is turned back from Spain and commits suicide.
Spains few thousand Jews don't go to Germany/Poland. Franco and Spain considered pariahs after the war.
Stroke of luck for Spain: February 1945, Yalta.1942, Churchill convinced Roosevelt not to invade France. We're not ready. But by June 1944, the Soviets are coming from the east and it's becoming clear that they will have their way in Eastern Europe.
Molotov emerges from Yalta insulted, angry and powerful.
1948: Humphrey...It's time to move away from states rights to civil rights.
Cold War. And fear that if Stalin isn't checked, Soviets will roll all the way to England.
This busts up the Democrats. Ultimately, the advent of the Cold War works for Spain. America now needs Franco.
Adenauer and Brandt also benefit in Germany.
Spanish Economy begins to improve. Franco jettisons some of his loyalists. Opus Dei (Church) benefits.
Franco perceives that security will be found in Spain through of the Monarchy. Juan Carlos comes to Spain, is educated,....and reestablishes
Spain enters Common Maker and NATO.
In the short run in American foreign policy, we make accommodations with some really creepy characters.
After Franco's dear, the whole apparatus
1981 Coup d'etat is foiled by King Juan Carlos. He promises he will never again intervene in politics.
Spain has PROBLEMS: 2parts of the country don't want to be part of the country. 25% unemployment here. France over 10%.
Look on the bright side: European Union is one of the great accomplishments of modern history.
70 years after the Holocaust, Jews are fine in the east and in Germany. Not as safe in France! and Germany!!
The country DOES have a lot of troubles, but it's OK. We SHOULD help Spain succeed.
Berk says we need to twin with congregations all over Europe. Where does Joint's money go? Mostly Orthodox. Not fair. Not smart.